bjective: To determine the risk of seizure recurrence after a first seizure due to neurocysticercosis (NC) and to evaluate risk factors for seizure recurrence, including the influence of antihelminthic treatment.
Methods: The authors prospectively followed 77 patients with a first seizure and active or transitional NC for >7 years (median 24 months).
Results: Thirty-one patients (40.3%) experienced seizure recurrence. Kaplan–Meier estimated recurrence was 22% at 6 months, 32% at 12 months, 39% at 24 months, and 49% at 48 and 84 months. Treatment with an antihelminthic (albendazole) did not influence recurrence. On multivariable analysis, none of the following predicted recurrence: sex, presenting seizure type, classification of NC, localization of cysts, Todd paralysis, neurologic deficits at presentation, EEG abnormalities. Only change in CT predicted recurrence: 22% in patients in whom cysts disappeared and 56% in patients with persistent cysts (p < 0.05). In this latter group, recurrence was associated with persistence of an active lesion. Of those with two seizures, estimated risk of a third seizure was 68% by 6 years after the second seizure.
Conclusions: Seizure recurrence is high after a first acute symptomatic seizure due to NC, but this seems related to persistence of active brain lesions. Recurrence risk is low and in keeping with seizure risk following other brain insults leading to a static encephalopathy in those in whom the NC lesion clears. Patients with NC should receive antiseizure medications until the acute lesion clears on CT. There is no correlation between treatment with antihelminthic agents and seizure recurrence